Good Ol' Days_Japan.
When my interest was aroused to learn everything there is to learn about Juniperus rigida I initially thought that by watching (observing) how the technique was performed in different gardens in Japan, I would understand. I thought completely wrong…Very soon I discovered there are different ways of trimming according to the stage of development of the tree. The technique itself remains the same but how much trimming that has to be done, where and when to do it, differs. At first glimpse the results after pruning were the same. I confined myself to one teacher who taught me everything about it, going from maintenance during developmental phase to the stage of ripe, mature trees. From then on everything was clear and there was no more confusion. On this picture you can observe Okumura’s father doing normal maintenance work without intentions for further development.